TECHNICAL FISHERY INTERACTIONS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

Flávia Lucena, Carl Michael O’Brien, Thierry Frédou

Resumo


Technical interactions arise through the incidental catch of non-target species (by-catch) in targeted fisheries and by the co-existence of fleets exploiting the same resource. This study revises the fishery, gears and species captured in southern Brazil and also identifies the technical interactions between the fleets and the species involved (through mixed catch and by-catch), especially of the bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, and the striped weakfish, Cynoscion guatucupa. Data was taken from published material about the southern Brazilian continental shelf fishery, catch records from coastal landing sites, interviews with skippers and managers and data collected by the IBAMA (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis). The demersal teleosts are the most exploited resources, notably the Sciaenids Micropogonias furnieri, C. guatucupa, Umbrina canosai and Macrodon ancylodon (55% in weight). The higher proportion of by-catch of the targeted P. saltatrix by gill netting is due to Brevoortia pectinata and Parona signata. The targeted C. guatucupa by gill netting is more species-diverse. M. furnieri gill netting is very species-selective as only 4% on average of the total catch is regarded as incidental. Trawlers may catch up to 20 species and there is no specific target species. Purse seine is a species-specific gear as, for most of the targeted species, the by-catch is less than 1% by weight. The size range of the exploited P. saltatrix and C. guatucupa differs amongst gears.

 

RESUMO

Interações técnicas na atividade pesqueira do sul do Brasil

Interações técnicas estão relacionadas com a captura incidental de espécies não alvo (fauna acompanhante) em pescarias direcionadas e, pela co-existência de frotas explorando o mesmo recurso. Este estudo revisa a pesca, artes de pesca e espécies capturadas no sul do Brasil e também identifica as interações técnicas entre frotas e espécies (através da captura mista ou fauna acompanhante), especialmente para a anchova, Pomatomus saltatrix, e pescada olhuda, Cynoscion guatucupa. Os dados foram obtidos através de material publicado sobre a pesca da plataforma continetal do sul do Brasil, registros de pesca dos pontos de desembarque da pesca costeira, entrevista com mestres e armadores de barcos e dados coletados pelo IBAMA. Teleósteos demersais são os recursos mais explorados, principalmente os Sciaenídeos Micropogonias furnieri, C. guatucupa, Umbrina canosai e Macrodon ancylodon (55% em peso). A maior proporção da fauna acompanhante da pescaria de rede de emalhe direcionada para o P. saltatrix são das espécies Brevoortia pectinata e Parona signata. A pesca de emalhe direcionada para C. guatucupa é mais diversificada. A pesca de emalhe direcionada para M. furnieri é muito seletiva em termos de número de espécies uma vez que apenas 4% em media da captura total é incidental. Arrasteiros podem capturar até 20 diferentes espécies e não há uma espécie-alvo específica. Rede de cerco é uma arte específica uma vez que, para a maioria das espécies-alvo, a fauna acompanhante é menor que 1% em peso. A faixa de comprimento do P. saltatrix and C. guatucupa explorado difere entre as artes de pesca.

Palavras chave: pesca, sul do Brasil, interações técnicas.

 


Palavras-chave


fishery, southern Brazil, technical interactions

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