UMA ABORDAGEM METODOLÓGICA PARA O ESTUDO DAS ZOOXANTELAS DE CORAIS DO BRASIL

Cristiane Francisca da Costa, Roberto Sassi, Krystyna Gorlach-Lira

Resumo


Os procedimentos metodológicos necessários para o estudo das zooxantelas e de outros microssimbiontes hospedados por corais escleractínios do Brasil são apresentados neste trabalho. Incluem-se detalhes sobre técnicas de coleta, extração dos tecidos dos corais, estimativas das áreas das colônias do coral utilizado nos estudos quantitativos com zooxantelas, análises microscópicas das zooxantelas, análises dos pigmentos fotossintetizantes, estudo microscópico de outros microssimbiontes associados, além da caracterização genotípica das linhagens das zooxantelas de corais empregando-se técnicas de PCR, e sobre o monitoramento do branqueamento.  Finalmente discutem-se aspectos chaves das metodologias que devem ser considerados a fim de garantir resultados seguros.

Palavras-Chaves: Zooxantelas, Dinoflagelados, Corais escleractínios, Brasil, Metodologia

Abstract

A methodological approach to study of the Zooxanthellae from Brazilian corals

The necessary methodological procedures for the study of the zooxanthellae and other microsymbionts of scleractinian corals of Brazil are presented in this study. Details of the collection techniques, extraction of the coral tissue, determination of the area of the coral colonies used in the quantitative studies on zooxanthellae, microscopic analyses of the zooxanthellae, analyses of the photosynthetic pigments, microscopic study of other associated microsymbionts, genotypic characterization of the zooxanthellae hosted by corals using molecular techniques, and the bleaching monitoring are included. Finally the key aspects of the methodologies that should be considered in order to guarantee valuable results are discussed.

Keywords: Zooxanthellae, Dinoflagellates, Scleractinian corals, Brazil, Methodology


Referências


AMARAL, F.D. & COSTA, C.F. 1998. Zooxantelas dos hidrocorais Millepora alcicornis e Millepora braziliensis e dos corais Favia gravida e Siderastrea stellata de Pernambuco. Trab. Oceanogr. Univ. Fed. PE., 26 (1):123-133.

ARAR, J.A. & COLLINS, G.B. 1992. Method 445.0- In vitro determination of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a in marine and freshwater phytoplankton by fluorescence In: USEPA Methods for determination of chemical substances in marine and estuarine environmental sample, p 1-2.

BAKER, A.C. 2001. Reef corals bleach to survive change. Brief communications. Nature., 411: 765-766.

BAKER, A.C. 2003. Flexibility and specificity in coral-algal symbiosis: diversity, ecology, and biogegraphy of Symbiodinium. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 34:661-689.

BAKER, A.C. & ROWAN, R. 1997. Diversity of symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) in scleractinian corals of the Caribbean and Eastern Pacific. In: Proc. 8th. Int. Coral Reef Symp., 2: 1301-1306.

BAKER, A.C., ROWAN, R. & KNOWLTON, N. 1997. Symbiosis ecology of two Caribbean acroporid corals. In: Proc. 8th. Int. Coral Reef Symp., 2: 1295-1300.

BARBROOK, A.C., VISRAM, S., DOUGLAS, A.E. & HOWE, C.J. 2006. Molecular Diversity of Dinoflagellate Symbionts of Cnidaria: The psbA Minicircle of Symbiodinium. Protist., 157 (2):159-171.

BILLINGHURST, Z., DOUGLAS, A.E. & TRAPIDO-ROSENTHAL, H.G. 1997. On the genetic diversity of the symbiosis between the coral Montastraea cavernosa Linnaeus, 1767 and zooxanthellae in Bermuda. In: Proc. 8th. Int. Coral Reef Symp., 2: 1291-1294.

BRANDT, K. 1881. Ueber das Zusammenleben von Thieren und algen. Verh. Physio.l Ges., 22-26.

BRANDT, K. 1882. Ueber das Zusammenlenben Von Thieren und Algen. Bot. Ztg., 40: 248-254.

BROWN, B.E., DUNNE, R.P., WARNER, M.E., AMBARSARI, I., FITT, W.K., GIBB, S.W. & CUMMINGS, D.G. 2000. Damage and recovery of photosystem II during a manipulative field experiment on solar bleaching in the coral Goniastrea aspera. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 195: 117-124.

BUCK, BH, ROSENTHAL H, SAINT-PAUL U (2002) Effect of increased irradiance and thermal stress on the symbiosis of Symbiodinium microadriaticum and Tridacna gigas. Aquat Living Ressour 15: 107-117

BUDDEMEIER, R.W. & FAUTIN, D.G. 1993. Coral bleaching as an adaptive mechanism. Bio. Science., 43 (5): 320-326.

BURTON, R.S. 1996. Molecular tools in marine ecology. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 200: 85-101.

COFFROTH, M.A. 1990. Mucous sheet formation on poritid corals: an evaluation of coral mucus as a nutrient source on reefs. Mar. Biol., 105 (1): 39-49.

COFFROTH, M.A., SANTOS, S.R. & GOULET, T.L. 2001. Early ontogenetic expression of specificity in a cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 222: 85-96.

COSTA, C.F. 1998. Zooxantelas de algumas espécies de corais (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) da Praia de Gaibu e da praia de Tamandaré - PE. Monografia de graduação - Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife.

COSTA, C.F. 2001. Zooxantelas (Dinoflagelados simbióticos) hospedadas por corais (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) dos recifes do Picãozinho, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil. Dissertação (Mestrado em Zoologia) - Universidade Federal da Paraíba João Pessoa, João Pessoa.

COSTA, C.F., SASSI, R. & AMARAL, F.D. 2001a. Branqueamento em Siderastrea stellata (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) da Praia de Gaibu, Pernambuco, Brasil. Rev. Nordestina de Biologia., 15(1): 15-22.

COSTA, C.F., AMARAL, F.D., SASSI, R. & ESKINAZI-LEÇA, E. 2001b. Some diatoms attached to scleractinian corals from northeast Brazil. Rev. Nordestina de Biologia., 15(1): 23-30.

COSTA, C.F. & AMARAL, F.D. 2002. Density and size differences in zooxanthellae from five reef-building coral species from Brazil. In: Proc. 9th Int. Coral Reef Symp., 1: 159-162.

COSTA, C.F., SASSI, R. & AMARAL, F.D. 2004a. Population density and photosynthetic pigment content in symbiotic dinoflagellates in the Brazilian scleractinian coral Montastrea cavernosa (Linnaeus, 1767). Brazilian J. Oceanogr., 52(2): 1-7.

COSTA, C.F., COUTINHO, C.S., SASSI, R. & BRITO, A.C.L.V. 2004b. Microssymbionts of Siderastrea stellata (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) in coastal reefs of Cabo Branco, State of Paraiba, Northeastem, Brazil. Tropical. Oceangr., 32(2): 173-181.

COSTA, C.F., SASSI, R. & AMARAL, F.D. 2005. Annual cycle of symbiotic dinoflagellates from three species of scleractinian corals from coastal reefs of northeastern Brazil. Coral Reefs., 24: 191-193.

COSTA, C.F. 2006. Estudo eco-fisiológico e molecular dos dinoflagelados simbiontes de Siderastrea stellata (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) dos ambientes recifais do Cabo Branco, Paraíba - Brasil, sob condições de estresses naturais e provocados artificialmente. Tese (Doutorado em Zoologia) - Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa.

CUPP, E.E. 1943. Marine plankton diatoms of West coast North America. Bull. Scripps., 5: 1-238.

DIEKMANN, O.E., BAK, R.P.M., TONK, L., STAM, W.T. & OLSEN, J.L. 2001. Molecular genetic evidence for probable reticulate speciation in the coral genus Madracis from a Caribbean fringing reef slope. Mar. Biol., 139: 221-233.

DIEKMANN, O.E., BAK, R.P.M., TONK, L., STAM, W.T. & OLSEN, J.L. 2002. No habitat correlation of zooxanthellae in the coral genus Madracis on a Curaçao reef. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 227: 221-232.

DOUGLAS, A.E. 2003. Coral bleaching-how and why? Mar. Poll. Bull., 46: 385-392.

ELOY, C.C. 2005. Estudo da microbiota simbionte de Palythoa caribaerum (Duchassang e Michelloti, 1860) (Cnidaria - Zoanthidea), da praia do Cabo Branco, Paraíba, Brasil, com ênfase nas zooxantelas. Dissertação (Mestrado em Zoologia) - Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa.

FAGOONEE, I., WILSON, H.B., HASSEL, M.P. & TURNER, J.F. 1999. The dynamic of zooxanthellae populations: a long-term study in the field. Science., 283: 843-845.

FITT, W.K., HESLINGA, G.A. & WATSON, T.C. 1993a. Utilization of dissolved inorganic nutrients in growth and mariculture of the tridacnid clam Tridacna derasa. Aquaculture., 109: 27-38.

FITT, W.K., SPERO, H.J., HALAS, J., WHITE, M.W. PORTER, J.W. 1993b. Recovery of the coral Montastrea annularis in the Florida keys after the 1987 Caribbean “Bleaching event”. Coral Reefs., 12: 57-64.

FITT, W.K., MCFARLAND, F.K., WARNER, M.E. & CHILCOAT, G.C. 2000. Seasonal patterns of tissue biomass and densities of symbiotic dinoflagellates in reef corals and relation to coral bleaching. Limnol. Oceanogr., 45 (3): 677-685.

GINSBURG, R.N., KRAMER, P.A., LANG, J.C. SALE, P. 1998. Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) - Revised rapid assessment protocol (RAP) http://coral.aoml.noaa.gov/agra/ last revision: 18/02/2000.

GLYNN, P.W. 1993. Coral reef bleaching: ecological perspectives. Coral Reefs., 12: 1-17.

GLYNN, P.W., MATÉ, J.L., BAKER, A.C. & CALDERON, M.O. 2001. Coral reef bleaching and mortality in Panama and Ecuador during the 1997-1998 EL NiÑo-Southern oscillation event: spatial/temporal patterns and comparison with the 1982-1983 event. Bull. Mar. Sci., 69(1): 79-109.

GORBUNOV, M.Y., KOLBER, Z.S., LESSER, M.P. & FALKOWSKI, P.G. 2001. Photosynthesis and photoprotection in symbiotic corals. Limnol. Oceanogr., 46(1): 75-85.

GOULET, T.I. & COFFROTH, M.A. 2003a. Genetic composition of zooxanthellae between and within colonies of the octocoral Plexaura kuna, based on small subunit rDNA and multilocus DNA fingerprinting. Mar. Biol., 142: 233-239.

GOULET, T.I. & COFFROTH, M.A. 2003b. Stability of an octocoral-algal symbiosis over time and space. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 250: 117-124.

GOULET, T.I. & COFFROTH, M.A. 2004. The genetic identity of dinoflagellate symbionts in Caribbean octocorals. Coral. Reefs., 23: 465-472.

HASLE, G.R. & FRYXELL, G.A. 1970. Diatoms: cleaning and mounting for light and electron microscopy. Trans. Amer. Microsc. Soc., 89(4): 469-474.

HENDEY, N.L. 1964. An introductory account of the smaller algae of British coastal water. V. Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms). Fishery. Investigations. Serie., 4(5): 1-317.

HILL, J. & WILKINSON, C. 2004. Methods for Ecological Monitoring of Coral Reefs - A resource for managers. Version 1. Australian Institute of Marine Science,. 123p.

HODGSON, G. 1999. Coral reef Monitoring and Management Using Reef Check. Integrated Coastal Zone Management., 2: 169-177.

HODGSON, G. & LIEBELER, J. 2002. The Global Coral Reef - 5 Years of Reef Check. Reef Check Foundation. Institute of the Environment., 78 p.

JEFFREY, S.W. & HUMPHREY, G.F. 1975. New spectrophotometric equations for determing chlorophylls a, b,c1 and c2 in higher plants, algae and natural phytoplankton. Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen., 167: 191-194.

JEFFREY, S.W. & WELSCHMEYER, A.N. 1997. Spectrophotometric and fluorometric equations in common use in oceanography. France: UNESCO, Parte V, p. 597-615.

JOHANNES, R.E. & WIEBE, W.J. 1970. Method for determination of coral tissue biomass and composition. Limnol. Oceanogr., 15(5): 822-824.

KARAKO-LAMPERT, S., KATCOFF, D.J. & ACHITUV, Y. 2004. Do clades of symbiotic dinoflagellates in scleractinian corals of the Gulf of Eilat (Red Sea) differ from those of other coral reefs? J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 311: 301-314.

KIKUCHI, R.K.P., LEÃO, Z.M.A.N., TESTA, V., DUTRA, L.X.C. & SPANO, S. 2003. Rapid assessment of Abrolhos reefs, eastern Brazil (Part 1: stony coral and algae) Atoll. Res. Bull., 496: 172-187.

KRIEGER, W. 1954. Crysophyta. Berlim: Syllabus der pflanzenfamilien., p.73-85.

LANGER, M.R. & LIPPS, J.H. 1994. Phylogenetic incongruence between dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium) and their host foraminifera (Sorites): small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence evidence. Mar. Micropaleontology., 26: 179-186.

LEÃO, M.A.N., KIKUCHI, R.K.P., DUTRA, L.X.C. & OLIVEIRA, M.D.M. 2005. The status of eastern Brazil coarl reefs during the last 500 years. In: Proc. 10th Int. Coral Reef Symp., 1: 124-128.

LESSER, M.P., MAZEL, C., PHINNE, Y.D. & YENTSCH, C.S. 2000. Light absorption and utilization by colonies of the congeneric hermatypic corals Montastrea faveolata and Montastrea cavernosa. Limnol. Oceanogr., 45 (1): 76-86.

LOH, W.K.W., CARTER, D. & HOEGH-GULDBERG, O. 2001. Genetic variability of the symbiotic dinoflagellates from the wide ranging coral species Seriatopora hystrix and Acropora longicyathus in the Indo-West Pacific. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 222: 97-107.

MARSH, J.A. 1970. Primary productivity of reef-building calcareous red algae. Ecol., 51 (2): 255-263.

MARUYAMA, T., ISHIKURA, M., YAMAZAKI, S. & KANAI, S. 1998. Molecular phylogeny of zooxanthellae bivalves. Biol. Bull., 195: 70-77.

MUSCATINE, L. 1990. The role of symbiotic algae in carbon and energy flux in reef corals. New York: Academic Press, cap. 25, p. 75-87.

ODUM, H.T. & ODUM, E.P. 1955. Trophic structure and productivity of a windward coral reef community on Eniwetok Atoll. Ecol. Monogr., 25: 291-320.

PACOBAHYBA, L.D. 1992. Diatomáceas (Bacillariophyta) epífitas na fanerógama marinha Halodule wrighitii Aschers, coletada no ambiente costeiro de Itamaracá-PE. Dissertação (Mestrado em Oceanografia) - Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife.

PERRU, O. 2000. Endosymbiosis and self-organization. Ludus. Vitalis., 3(14): 35-63.

PHILIPP, E. & FABRICIUS, K. 2003. Photophysiological stress in scleractinian corals in response to short-term sedimentation. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 287: 57-78.

POCHON, X., PAWLOWSKI, J., ZANINETTI, L. & ROWAN, R. 2001. High genetic diversity and relative specifity among Symbiodinium-like endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in sortid foraminiferans. Mar. Biol., 139: 1069-1078.

PORTER, J.W., MUSCATINE, L., DUBINSKY, Z. & FALHOWSKI, P.G. 1984. Primary production and photoadaptation in light-shade-adapted colonies of the symbiotic coral Stylophora pistillata. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., 222: 161-180.

RICARD, M. 1987. Atlas du Phytoplancton Marin, Volume II: Diatomophycées. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, p. 297.

ROWAN, R. & POWERS, D.A. 1991. Molecular genetic identification of symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 71: 65-73.

ROWAN, R 1998. Diversity and ecology of zooxanthellae on coral reefs. J. Phycol., 34:407-417.

ROWAN, R. & KNOLTON, N. 1995. Intraspecific diversity and ecological zonation in coral-algal symbiosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 92: 2850-2853.

ROWAN, R., KNOWTON, N., BAKER, A. & JARÁ, J. 1997. Landscape ecology of algal symbionts creates variation in episodes of coral bleaching. Nature., 388: 265-269.

SAMBROOH, J., FRITSCH, E.F. &, MANIATS, T. 1989. Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold spring harbor laboratory, 1000p.

SCHUHMACHER, H. & ZIBROWIUS, H. 1985. What is hermatypic? A redefinition of ecological groups in corals and other organisms. Coral Reefs., 4: 1-9.

SCHWARZ, J.Á., WEIS, V.M. & POTTS, D.C. 2002. Feeding behavior and acquisition of zooxanthellae by planula larvae of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. Mar. Biol., 140: 471-478.

SCOR-UNESCO. 1966. Determination of photosynthetic pigments in seawater. Paris: UNESCO, cap. 1, p. 11-18.

SCOTT, B.D. & JITTS, H.R. 1977. Photosynthesis of phytoplankton and zooxanthellae on a coral reef. Mar. Biol., 41: 307-315.

SEUTIN, G., WHITE, B.N. & BOAG, T.P. 1991. Preservation of avian blood and tissue sample for DNA analyses. Can. J. Zool., 69: 82-90.

SILVA-CUNHA, M.G.G. DA S. & ESKINAZI-LEÇA, E. 1990. Catálogo das Diatomáceas (Bacillariophyceae) da Plataforma Continental de Pernambuco. Recife: SUDENE-DPG/PRN/PE, UFPE. 308p.

STIMSON, J. 1997. The annual cycle of density of zooxanthellae in the tissue of field and laboratory-held Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 214: 35-48.

TAYLOR, D.L. 1973. Symbiotic marine algae: taxonomy and biological fitness. Columbia: Univ of South Carolina Press, p. 245-262.

TITLYANOV, E.A., TITLYANOV, T.V., YAMAZATO, K.Y. & WOESIK, R.V. 2001. Photo-acclimation dynamics of the coral Stylophora pistillata to low and extremely low light. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 263: 211-225.

TOLLER, W.W., ROWAN, R. & KNOWLTON, N. 2001a. Repopulation of zooxanthellae in the Caribbean corals Montastrea annularis and M. faveolata following experimental and disease-associated bleaching. Biol. Bull., 201: 360-373.

TOLLER, W.W., ROWAN, R. & KNOWLTON, N. 2001b. Zooxanthellae of the Montastrea annularis species complex: Patterns of distribution of four taxa of Symbiodinium on different reefs and across depths. Biol. Bull., 201:348-359.

TOLLER, W.W., ROWAN, R. & KNOWLTON, N. 2002. Genetic evidence for a protozoan (Phylum Apicomplexa) associated with corals of the Montastrea annularis species complex. Coral Reefs., 1-8.

TRENCH, R.K. 1997. Diversity of symbiotic dinoflagellates and the evolution of microalgal-invertebrate symbioses. In: Proc. 8th Int. Coral Reef Symp., 2: 1275-1286.

WARNER, M.E., CHILCOAT, G.C., MCFARLAND, F.K. & FITT, W.K. 2002. Seasonal fluctuations in the photosynthetic capacity of photosystem II in symbiotic dinoflagellates in the Caribbean reef-building coral Montastrea. Mar. Biol., 141: 31-38.

WEGLEY, L., EDWARDS, R., RODRIGUEZ-BRITO, B., LIU, H. & ROHWER, F. 2007. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community associated with the coral Porites astreoides. Environ. microbiol., 9 (11):2707-2719.

WILCOX, T.P. 1998. Large-subunit ribosomal RNA systematics of symbiotic dinoflagellates: morphology does not recapitulate phylogeny. Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 10(3): 436-448.

WILKERSON, F.P., KOBAYASHI, D. & MUSCATINE, L. 1988. Mitotic index and size of symbiotic algae in Caribbean reef corals. Coral Reefs., 7: 29-36.


Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


Direitos autorais 2014 Boletim do Laboratório de Hidrobiologia

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-SemDerivações 4.0 Internacional.

B. Lab. Hidro.

E-mail: boletimlabohidro@ufma.br

ISSN 1982-6421 (Online)