STRUCTURAL VARIABILITY OF MANGROVE FORESTS IN TURIAÇU BAY, AMAZONIAN COAST OF MARANHÃO, BRAZIL

Flávia Rebelo Mochel

Resumo


Structural analysis of mangrove  forests was carried out in Turiaçu Bay during 1997 and 1998. The study area is influenced by brackish to saline waters with the occurrence of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus. The other two red mangrove species R. racemosa and R. harrisonii occur mostly in freshwater and oligohaline environments and were not included in this paper. It was measured all mangrove trees over 2.5 cm of DBH (Diameter at Breast Height), inside 26 plots of 30 x 30 m, in the right side of the bay. The sample sites were arbitrarily selected considering 3 mangrove types: fringe, riverine and basin mangroves. The results show high structural variability. Mangrove species may be present in homogeneous, monospecific stands or in mixed stands of 2 or 3 species. Tree height ranged from 2 to 20 m and DBH from 3 to 35 cm with estimated basal area ranging from 1 to 50 m2 /ha. Estimated tree density ranged from 200 to 2,000 trees/ha. The best developed stands were found in well flushed areas fringing the bay or along river margins. The less developed mangroves were found to be the basin type, in dried, sandy soils, in poorly flushed areas. The correlations between structural parameters were positive for tree height x DBH (r= 0.88), tree height x basal area (r= 0.87), and negative to tree density x DBH (r= -0.71) and tree height x tree density (r= -0.60). The most abundant and best developed species is A. germinans, followed by R. mangle. L. racemosa is less abundant as well less developed in structure than the others, independent of its location in fringe, basin or riverine stands. The high structural variability sets the fragility of mangrove ecosystems in Turiaçu Bay and the necessity of adjusting management techniques to achieve sustainable development.

Keywords: mangrove structure, mangrove landscape, Amazonian coast, coastal ecosystems.


Referências


Bandeira, S.O.; C. C. F. Macamo, J. G. Kairo, F. Amade, N. Jiddawi, J. Paula. 2009. Evaluation of mangrove structure and condition in two trans-boundary areas in the Western Indian Ocean. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 19 (1): 46-55.

Brown, S. & Lugo, A. E. A comparison of structural and functional characteristics of saltwater and freshwater forested wetlands.In: Forested Wetlands of Florida – their management and use, Center for Wetlands, University of Florida:109-129, 1976.

Cintrón, G.; Goenaga, C. y Gonzales-Liboy,J. Ecologia del mangle en zona árida: exposicion al aleaje y estrutura del manglar. Boletim do Instituto Oceanográfico, São Paulo. 29 (2),113-127, 1980a.

Cintrón, G., Lugo, A. E. & Martinez,R. Structural and functional properties of mangrove forests. In: Symposium signaling the completion of the flora of Panama: 53-66,1980b.

Cintrón,G. & Schaeffer-Novelli,Y. Características y desarrollo estructural de los manglares de Norte y Sur America. Programa Regional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (PRDCyT) de la OEA, INVEMAR, Santa Maria, Colômbia, 26-29 junio de 1984, 35p., 1984.

Flores-Verdugo, F.J; Day Jr., J.W & Dueñas, R.B. Structure, litter fall, decomposition, and detritus dynamics of mangroves in a Mexican coastal lagoon with na ephemeral inlet. Marine Ecology , Progree Series, 35: 83-90,1987.

Herz, R.. Manguezais do Brasil. Instituto oceanográfico. São Paulo, 227 pp, 1991.

KJERFVE B, PERILLO GM, GARDNER LR, RINE JM, DIAS GTM AND MOCHEL FR. 2002. Morphodynamics of muddy environments along the Atlantic coasts of North and South America. In: MUDDY COASTS OF THE WORLD: PROCESSES, DEPOSITS AND FUNCTIONS. 1st ed., Amsterdam, Elsevier Science, p. 479-532.

Kjerfve, B. and Lacerda, L. D. Mangroves of Brazil. Mangrove Ecosystems Technical Reports, vol. 2, 245-272, ISME, Okinawa, 1993.

Lacerda, L. D. Conservation and sustainable utilization of New World mangroves. Mangrove Ecosystems Proceedings, International Society for Mangrove Environment (ISME), 3:77-86, 1994.

Lacerda, L. D. and Schaeffer-Novelli, Y. Latin American mangroves: the need for sustainable utilization. Mangroves Newsletter, 5:4-6, 1992.

Lugo, A.E. Stress and Ecosystems. In: Energy and Environmental Stress in Aquatic Systems: 62-96Thorp, J.H. & Gibbons, J.W. (eds.)., DOE Symposium Series, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1978.

Lugo, A.E. & Snedaker, S.C. The Ecology of mangroves. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 5: 39-63, 1974.

Lugo, A.E. Mangrove ecosystems: successional or steady state? Tropical Succession, 65-72, 1980

Molina, O.A.L. & Esquivel, R. E. Asociaciones vegetales en el manglar de la Barra de Santiago, Ahuachapán, El Salvador. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 41 (1): 37-46,1993.

Nilsson, C. & Grelsson, G. The fragility of ecosystems: a review. Journal of Applied Ecology, 32: 677-692, 1995.

Pool D.J., Snedaker, S.C. & Lugo, A.E. Structure of Mangrove Forests in Florida, Puerto Rico, Mexico, and Costa Rica. Biotropica, 9(3): 195-212, 1977.

Rebelo-Mochel, F. Manguezais do Maranhão: proteção e desenvolvimento. In Os manguezais frontais da costa do Pará-Maranhão: razões da proteção integrada. Anais da 47ª Reunião da SBPC, São Luís, I:15-16, 1995.

Rebelo-Mochel, F. Mangroves on São Luís Island, Maranhão, Brazil.In: Kjerfve, B., Lacerda, L. D. and Diop, H. S (eds.) Mangrove Ecosystem Studies in Latin America and Africa, UNESCO, Paris. pp. 145- 154, 1997.

Rebelo-Mochel, F. Caracterização espectral e mapeamento dos manguezais por sensoriamento remoto na Baía de Turiaçu, Maranhão, Brasil. Tese de Doutorado, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, 153p., January, 1999.

Rebelo-Mochel, F, Macedo, L. A. A., Rego, M. M. C., Cutrim, M. V., Kowarick, M. A., Rodrigues, M. S. and Ferreira-Correia, M. M. Diagnóstico dos principais problemas ambientais do Estado do Maranhão. Instituto Brasileiro de Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA) and Secretaria de Meio Ambiente e Turismo (SEMATUR), São Luís, 194 pp., 1991.

Rebelo-Mochel, F.& Ponzoni, F. 2007. Spectral characterization of mangrove leaves in the Brazilian Amazonian Coast: Turiaçu Bay, Maranhão State. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. vol.79 no.4 Rio de Janeiro Dec. 2007

Sant’Anna, E. M. and Whately, M. H.. Distribuição dos manguezais do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Geografia, 43:47-63, 1981

SANTOS M. C. F. V. dos. 1986. Considerações sobre a ocorrência de Rhizophora harrisonii Leechman e Rhizophora racemosa G.F.W. Meyer, no litoral do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil. Boletim do Laboratório de Hidrobiologia 7: 71-91.

Schaeffer-Novelli, Y. & CINTRÓN, G. Guia para estudo de áreas de manguezal. Estrutura, função e flora. Caribbean Ecological Research, São Paulo, 150p. + 3 apêndices, 1986.

Silva, C.A.R., Lacerda, L.D., Silva, L.F.F. & Rezende, C.E. Forest structure and biomass distribution in a red mangrove stand in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro. Revista Brasileira de Botânica, 14: 21-25, 1991.

Soto, R. & Jiménez, J.J.A. Análises fisionómico estructural del manglar de Puerto Soley, La Cruz, Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical, 30 (2): 161-168, 1982.

Wallin, D.O., Swanson, F.J. & Marks, B. Landscape pattern response to changes in pattern generation rules: land-use legacies in forestry. Ecological Applications, 4(3): 569-580, 1994.


Apontamentos



Direitos autorais 2014 Boletim do Laboratório de Hidrobiologia

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-SemDerivações 4.0 Internacional.

B. Lab. Hidro.

E-mail: boletimlabohidro@ufma.br

ISSN 1982-6421 (Online)