Jorge L.S. Nunes, Ana P.V. Amurim, Diego S. Campos, Fernanda V. Dos Santos, Laícia C. Leite, Pâmella S Brito, Erick C. Guimarães


Nuclear-follower interactions are a particular type of interspecific foraging association which involves a nuclear species, which revolves or scans through the substrate, and follower species that access the food items made available by the nuclear species’ activity. This type of association was observed in a headwater stream at the Itapecuru basin, in the Maranhão cerrado, involving the catfishes Corydoras vittatus, Corydoras cf. julii as nuclear species and Knodus victoriae as its follower. Individuals of C. vittatus, Corydoras cf. julii revolved the substrate during their foraging, promoting sediment suspension. Their followers, in turn, moved through the “cloud” of particles in suspension, capturing food items. Food particles in suspension do not seem to be used by the catfishes but become available for K. victoriae. The follower behavior represents a feeding tactic for these species, reinforcing the general idea of behavioral plasticity between follower species.


Interação interespecífica, comensalismo, dulcícolas, forrageamento, snorkeling

Texto completo:



ARAÚJO, M.E., PEREIRA, P.H., FEITOSA, J.L., GONDOLO, G., PIMENTA, D., & NOTTINGHAN, M.C. 2009. Feeding behavior and follower fishes of Myrichthys ocellatus (Anguilliformes: ophichthidae) in the western Atlantic. Neotrop Ichthyol, 7:503–7.

BAKER, J. A. & S. A. FOSTER. 1994. Observations on a foraging association between two freshwater stream fishes. Ecol Freshw Fish, 3:137-139.

BSHARY, R., HOHNER, A., AIT-EL-DJOUDI, K., & FRICKE, H. 2006. Interspecific communicative and coordinated hunting between groupers and giant moray eels in the Red Sea. PLoS Biol, 4:e431.

CARVALHO, L.N., ARRUDA, R. & ZUANON, J. 2003. Record of cleaning behavior by Platydoras costatus (Siluriformes: Doradidae) in the Amazon Basin, Brazil. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 1(2):137-139.

CASATTI, L., & CASTRO, R.M.C. 1998. A fish community of São Francisco River headwaters riffles, southeastern Brazil. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat . 9(3):229-242.

CONCEIÇÃO, G.M., & CASTRO, A.A.J.F. 2009. Fitossociologia de uma área de cerrado marginal, Parque Estadual do Mirador, Mirador, Maranhão. Scientia Plena, 5(10).

CRAIG, M., & ERISMAN, B. 2010. A competitive following association between two reef fishes and the Jewelled Moray in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Coral Reefs, 29:813–813.

DUBIN, R.E. 1982. Behavioral interactions between Caribbean reef fish and eels (Muraenidae and Ophchthidae). Copeia, 1982(1):229-232.

GARRONE-NETO, D., & SAZIMA, I. 2009. The more stirring the better: cichlid fishes associate with foraging potamotrygonid rays. Neotrop. Ichthyol., 7:499-501.

GERHARDINGER, L.C., SAMAGAIA, R., HOSTIM-SILVA, M., & BARREIROS, J.P. 2006. A following association between juvenile Epinephelus marginatus (Serranidae) and Myrichthys ocellatus (Ophichthidae). Cybium, 30(1):82–4.

GIBRAN, F.Z. 2007. Activity, habitat use, feeding behavior, and diet of four sympatric species of Serranidae (Actinopterygii: Perciformes) in southeastern Brazil. Neotrop Ichthyol, 5:387–98.

KOCKER, T.D., & MCKAYE, K.R. 1983. Defese of heterospecific cichlids by Cyrtocara moorii in Lake Malawi, Africa. Copeia, 1983(2):544-547. LEITÃO, R.P., CARAMASCHI, E.P., & ZUANON,

J. 2007. Following food clouds: feeding association between a minute loricariid and a characidiin species in an Atlantic Forest stream, Southeastern Brazil. Neotrop. Ichthyol., 5(3):307-310.

LUKOSCHEK, V,. & McCORMICK, M.I. 2000. A review of multispecies foraging associations in fishes and their ecological significance. In 9th International Coral Reef Symposium. Bali, 23-27.

LUIZ, O. J. JR., CARVALHO-FILHO, A., FERREIRA, C.E.L., FLOETER, S.R., GASPARINI, J.L., & SAZIMA, I. 2008. The reef fish assemblage of the Laje de Santos Marine State Park, Southwestern Atlantic: annotated checklist with comments on abundance, distribution, trophic structure, symbiotic associations, and conservation. Zootaxa, 1807:1–25.

MAIA-NOGUEIRA, R., DE ANCHIETA, C.C., NUNES, J., CONI, E.O., FERREIRA, C.M., & SAMPAIO, C.L.S. 2009. The twinspot bass Serranus flaviventris (Serranidae) as follower of the goldspotted eel Myrichthys ocellatus (Ophichthidae) in north-eastern Brazil, with notes on other serranids. Mar Biodiv Rec, 2:e99.

PEREIRA, P.H.C., FEITOSA, J.L., CHAVES, L.C., & DE ARAÚJO, M.E. 2012. Reef fish foraging associations: “nuclear-follower ” behavior or an ephemeral interaction? In: Proceedings of the 12th international coral reef symposium, p. 1–5.

QUIMBAYO, J.P., ZAPATA, F.A., FLOETER, S.R., BESUDO, S., & SAZIMA, I. 2014. Reef fish foraging associations at Malpelo island, Colombia (Tropical Eastern Pacific). Bol Invest Mar Cost , 43(1):183–93.

SABINO, J., & ZUANON, J. 1998. A stream fish assemblage in central Amazonia: distribution, activity patterns and feeding behavior. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat., 8(3):201-210.

SABINO, J. 1999. Comportamento de peixes em riachos: uma abordagem naturalística. In: Ecologia de Peixes de Riachos (Caramaschi, E.P., Mazzoni, R. & Peres-Neto, P.R., eds.). Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 183-208 p.

SABINO, J., ANDRADE, L.P., SAZIMA, I., TERESA, F.B., FLOETER, S.R., SAZIMA,C., & BONALDO, R.M. 2017. Following fish feeding associations in marine and freshwater habitats. Mar Freshwater Res, 68(2):381.

SANTOS, F.B., & CASTRO, R. 2003. Activity, habitat utilization, feeding behaviour, and diet of the sand moray Gymnothorax ocellatus (Anguilliformes, Muraenidae) in the South western Atlantic. Biota Neotrop., 3:1–7.

SAZIMA, I. 1986. Similarities in feeding behavior between some marine and freshwater fishes in two tropical communities. J. Fish. Biol., 29:53-65.

SAZIMA, C., & GROSSMAN, A. 2005. A non-digging zoobenthivorous fish attracts two opportunistic predatory fish associates. Neotrop. Ichthyol., 3:445-449.

SAZIMA, C., KRAJEWSKI, J.E., BONALDO, R.M., & SAZIMA, I. 2006. Nuclear-follower foraging associations of reef fishes and other animals at an oceanic archipelago. Environ. Biol. Fishes , 78:1-11.

SAZIMA, C., KRAJEWSKI, J.P., BONALDO, R.M., & SAZIMA, I. 2007. Nuclear–follower foraging associations of reef fishes and other animals at an oceanic archipelago. Environ. Biol. Fishes, 80:351–361.

STRAND, S. 1988. Following behavior: interspecific foraging associations among Gulf of California reef fishes. Copeia, 2:351-357.

TERESA, F.B., & CARVALHO F.R. 2008. Feeding association between benthic and nektonic Neotropical stream fishes. Neotrop. Ichthyol., 6:109-111.

TERESA, F.B., ROMERO, R.M., CASATTI, L., & SABINO, J. 2011. Habitat simplification affects nuclear-follower foraging association among stream fishes. Neotrop. Ichthyol., 9:121-126.

TERESA, F.B., SAZIMA, C., SAZIMA, I., & FLOETER, S.R. 2014. Predictive factors of species composition of follower fishes in nuclear–follower feeding associations: a snapshot study. Neotrop. Ichthyol., 12:913–919.


  • Não há apontamentos.

Direitos autorais 2018 Boletim do Laboratório de Hidrobiologia

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-SemDerivações 4.0 Internacional.

Bol. Lab. Hidrobiol.


ISSN 1982-6421 (Online)